COVID-19 is a global pandemic currently lacking an effective cure. We used a cell-based infection assay to screen more than 3,000 agents used in humans and animals and identified 15 with antiinfective activity, ranging from 0.1 nM to 50 μM. We then used in vitro enzymatic assays combined with computer modeling to confirm the activity of those against the viral protease and RNA polymerase. In addition, several herbal medicines were found active in the cell-based infection assay. To further evaluate the efficacy of these promising compounds in animal models, we developed a challenge assay with hamsters and found that mefloquine, nelfinavir, and extracts of Ganoderma lucidum (RF3), Perilla frutescens, and Mentha haplocalyx were effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Fungi are a source of natural bioactive compounds that offer therapeutic potential in the prevention of viral diseases and for the improvement of human immunomodulation. Here, we made a brief review of the current findings on fungi as producers of protease inhibitors and studies on the relevant candidate fungal bioactive compounds that can offer immunomodulatory activities as potential therapeutic agents of coronaviruses in the future.
A discussion on the potential role of TCM herbs for the treatment of COVID-19.
Although it is common practice to apply the originally European name ‘Ganoderma lucidum’ to all commerical reishi products. Taxonomists have made a case that there is a difference between East Asian strains G. lingzhi and the European G. lucidum strains. G. lucidum contains less triterpenic acids than G. lingzhi.
Hsue-Yin Hsu – School of Technology for Medical Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Shi-Long Lian – Department of Radiotherapy, Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Chun-Ching Lin – School of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Published on August 20, 2013 vol. 110 no. 34 13809-13814 by PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America)