Identification of existing pharmaceuticals and herbal medicines as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 infection

COVID-19 is a global pandemic currently lacking an effective cure. We used a cell-based infection assay to screen more than 3,000 agents used in humans and animals and identified 15 with antiinfective activity, ranging from 0.1 nM to 50 μM. We then used in vitro enzymatic assays combined with computer modeling to confirm the activity of those against the viral protease and RNA polymerase. In addition, several herbal medicines were found active in the cell-based infection assay. To further evaluate the efficacy of these promising compounds in animal models, we developed a challenge assay with hamsters and found that mefloquine, nelfinavir, and extracts of Ganoderma lucidum (RF3), Perilla frutescens, and Mentha haplocalyx were effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

https://www.pnas.org/content/118/5/e2021579118

Natural Bioactive Compounds from Fungi as Potential Candidates for Protease Inhibitors and Immunomodulators to Apply for Coronaviruses

Fungi are a source of natural bioactive compounds that offer therapeutic potential in the prevention of viral diseases and for the improvement of human immunomodulation. Here, we made a brief review of the current findings on fungi as producers of protease inhibitors and studies on the relevant candidate fungal bioactive compounds that can offer immunomodulatory activities as potential therapeutic agents of coronaviruses in the future.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221821/

Distinguishing commercially grown Ganoderma lucidum from Ganoderma lingzhi from Europe and East Asia on the basis of morphology, molecular phylogeny, and triterpenic acid profiles

Although it is common practice to apply the originally European name ‘Ganoderma lucidum’ to all commerical reishi products. Taxonomists have made a case that there is a difference between East Asian strains G. lingzhi and the European G. lucidum strains. G. lucidum contains less triterpenic acids than G. lingzhi.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942216300413